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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.[2][5] Early on there are typically no symptoms.[2] Later, leg swelling, feeling tired, vomiting, loss of appetite, or confusion may develop.[2] Complications may include heart disease, high blood pressure, bone disease, or anemia.[3][4][10]

Causes of chronic kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease.[5][6] Risk factors include a family history of the condition.[2] Diagnosis is generally by blood tests to measure the glomerular filtration rate and urine tests to measure albumin.[7]Further tests such as an ultrasound or kidney biopsy may be done to determine the underlying cause.[5] A number of different classification systems exist.[11][12]

Screening at-risk people is recommended.[7] Initial treatments may include medications to manage blood pressure, blood sugar, and lower cholesterol.[9]NSAIDs should be avoided.[9] Other recommended measures include staying active and certain dietary changes.[9] Severe disease may require hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant.[8] Treatments for anemia and bone disease may also be required.[13][14]

Chronic kidney disease affected 753 million people globally in 2016, including 417 million females and 336 million males.[1] In 2015 it resulted in 1.2 million deaths, up from 409,000 in 1990.[6][15] The causes that contribute to the greatest number of deaths are high blood pressure at 550,000, followed by diabetes at 418,000, and glomerulonephritis at 238,000.[6]


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